6 questions on the 1998 nuclear tests
‚1998 1999 was the only year in the last quarter century that India had net negative foreign investment.’
‚Foreign money ran away from India that year because capital is a coward and does not like uncertainty of the high quality replica handbags sort produced by such casual treatment of a Replica Designer Handbags destructive technology,’ says Aakar Patel.
bag replica high quality IMAGE: From right, Dr Farooq Abdullah, then Union minister; R Chidamabaram, then chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; A P J Abdul Kalam, then chief scientific advisor to the prime minister; then defence minister George Fernandes, then prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and others celebrate the successful nuclear tests, May 1998. bag replica high quality
7a replica bags wholesale On May 11 and 13, 1998, India conducted five nuclear explosions in the Pokhran range in Rajasthan. This came 24 years after the first test in 1974, also in Pokhran. 7a replica bags wholesale
replica bags buy online Indira Gandhi had then violated the replica handbags china terms under which nuclear technology was imported from Canada and India replica handbags online faced sanctions. replica bags buy online
That first test came in a period which was decidedly unstable. China had become a nuclear power 10 years before that, in https://www.handbagaol.com the mid 1960s, becoming the last of the five veto holders in the United Nations to get an atom bomb.
replica designer bags wholesale It was a period also during which much of the world was at war. The United States was finishing a bloody conflict in Vietnam and the Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan was five years down the line when Indira tested. replica designer bags wholesale
The world was less predictable and conflict more common in the 1970s. During the Korean war, America’s top general Douglas MacArthur had threatened nuclear strikes against China and North Korea so casually that even the replica bags Americans were alarmed.
This was the background to Indira’s tests 44 years ago.
Under Atal Bihari Vajpayee Replica Handbags in 1998, there was Wholesale Replica Bags no such compulsion.
This was the period after the cold war had ended, the Soviet Union having Replica Bags Wholesale collapsed, and on the cusp of the information technology revolution.
It become clear in this period that Bangalore would lead India Fake Designer Bags to Designer Fake Bags a brave new services led economic future.
designer replica luggage It was a period when the economic rise of nations like Taiwan, Singapore, South wholesale replica designer handbags Korea and the other Asian tigers proved that power lay in wealth and not weaponry. designer replica luggage
good quality replica bags North Korea, which was a big military power but with millions of impoverished citizens, only proved this further. good quality replica bags
cheap designer bags replica We did not have any debate over the tests in 1998. The Vajpayee government had in fact wanted to test nuclear weapons during its first 13 day government, but an alarmed bureaucracy had said it could not agree to this. cheap designer bags replica
This shows how casually the tests were actually taken. There were cheap replica handbags celebrations, including firecrackers and sweets, which ensured that there was no debate after the tests either and certain basic questions were neither asked Designer Replica Bags nor answered.
Twenty years later, when the emotion has gone and the issue is now boring, let us look at those questions:
First, did the tests make India a nuclear KnockOff Handbags power? The answer is no.
Indira and India were Replica Bags punished by the world after 1974, denying us access to nuclear technology, precisely because we had violated the earlier terms by weaponising our programme. The 1998 tests repeated that.
Second, did it make India safer? The answer is no.
replica designer bags One year after Pokhran, in May 1999, Pakistan provoked a war in Kargil, in which we lost 500 soldiers. Ten years after that we had the attack in Mumbai. replica designer bags
The most violent phase of the conflict in Kashmir was actually after Pokhran, in 2001, when aaa replica designer handbags 4,500 people died.
Third, did it improve our nuclear technology? The Fake Handbags answer here is also no.
high quality designer replica The Manmohan Singh government purse replica handbags made a deal with the United States, but it has not got anywhere. high quality designer replica
Fourth, did it raise India’s status? The answer is no.
India has long insisted it should be a member of the United Nations Security Council. The nuclear tests did not help us get there. Most likely it harmed us.
replica designer backpacks Narendra D Modi decided India should be a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, but replica Purse that has not got anywhere either. replica designer backpacks
Fifth, did it the tests help us produce more electricity because of nuclear technology? The answer Handbags Replica is no. India’s focus today has become solar rather than nuclear.